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Parkinson’s disease determinants, prediction and gene–environment interactions in the UK Biobank
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    Parkinson's disease determinants, prediction and gene-environment interactions

    Jacobs et al. investigated the association of environmental factors and prodromal features with incident Parkinson's disease (PD) with special reference to the interaction of genetic factors [1]. The authors constructed polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for the risk assessment. Family history of PD, family history of dementia, non-smoking, low alcohol consumption, depression, daytime somnolence, epilepsy and earlier menarche were selected as PD risk factors. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the highest 10% of PRSs for the risk of PD was 3.37 (2.41 to 4.70). I have some concerns about their study.

    Regarding risk/protective factors of PD, Daniele et al. conducted a case-control study to performed a simultaneous evaluation of potential factors of PD [2]. Among 31 environmental and lifestyle factors, 9 factors were extracted by multivariate analysis. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of coffee consumption, smoking, physical activity, family history of PD, dyspepsia, exposure to pesticides, metals, and general anesthesia were 0.6 (0.4-0.9), 0.7 (0.6-0.9), 0.8 (0.7-0.9), 3.2 (2.2- 4.8), 1.8 (1.3-2.4), 2.3 (1.3- 4.2), 5.6 (2.3-13.7), 2.8 (1.5-5.4), and 6.1 (2.9-12.7), respectively. Family history of PD and non-smoking were common risk factors, which had also been reported by several prospective studies.

    Regarding smoking, Angelopoulou et al. investigated the association between environmental factors and PD subtypes (early-onset, mid-and-late on...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.