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Predictors of outcome in 1-month survivors of large middle cerebral artery infarcts treated by decompressive hemicraniectomy

Abstract

Background Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) increases survival without severe dependency in patients with large middle cerebral artery (LMCA) infarcts. The objective was to identify predictors of 1-year outcome after DH for LMCA infarct.

Methods We conducted this study in consecutive patients who underwent DH for LMCA infarcts, in a tertiary stroke centre. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we evaluated predictors of (1) 30-day mortality and (2) poor outcome after 1 year (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 4–6) in 30-day survivors.

Results Of 212 patients (133 men, 63%; median age 51 years), 35 (16.5%) died within 30 days. Independent predictors of mortality were infarct volume before DH (OR 1.10 per 10 mL increase, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.16), delay between symptom onset and DH (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73 per 12 hours increase) and midline shift after DH (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.09 to 6.14). The optimal infarct volume cut-off to predict death was 210 mL or more. Among the 177 survivors, 77 (43.5%) had a poor outcome at 1 year. Independent predictors of poor outcome were age (OR 1.08 per 1 year increase, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and weekly alcohol consumption of 300 g or more (OR 5.30, 95% CI 2.20 to 12.76), but not infarct volume.

Conclusion In patients with LMCA infarcts treated by DH, stroke characteristics (infarct volume before DH, midline shift after DH and early DH) predict 30-day mortality, while patients’ characteristics (age and excessive alcohol intake) predict 1-year outcome survivors.

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