Background Several studies reported the beneficial effects of globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with inherited or idiopathic isolated dystonia. However, the impact of this intervention on physical and mental/psychological domains and the effects over time remain unclear.
Methods We conducted a systematic literature review from January 2000 to May 2019 and performed a meta-analysis of HRQoL outcomes based on the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) after GPi DBS in patients with inherited or idiopathic isolated dystonia to evaluate the effects of DBS on physical and mental QoL.
Results Seven studies comprising 144 patients with dystonia (78, generalised; 34, segmental; and 32, focal cervical) were included in this comprehensive analysis. The mean (SD) age at DBS implantation was 41.0 (11.4) years, and the follow-up period after implantation was 3.2 (3.8) years. The random effects model meta-analysis revealed that both physical and mental domains of SF-36 improved following DBS with a significantly larger effect size for the physical domains (effect size=0.781; p<0.0001) compared with the mental domains (effect size=0.533; p<0.0001). A moderator variable analysis demonstrated that effect sizes for HRQoL improvement were maintained over time.
Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis that demonstrates significant benefits in HRQoL following DBS in patients with inherited or idiopathic isolated dystonia. The benefits are greater for physical QoL domains compared with mental/psychological QoL. These findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to improve mental/psychological QoL.
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