Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Towards a better recognition of paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis
  1. Francesc Graus
  1. Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Professor Francesc Graus, Neuroimmunology Program, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 08036, Spain; francesc.graus{at}

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Clinical and immunological features in paraneoplastic cochleovestibulopathy

A paraneoplastic aetiology should be considered in patients who develop symptoms of brainstem dysfunction over a period of weeks, even if their brain MRI does not show any evidence of inflammation.1 The detection of serum or cerebrospinal fluid onconeural antibodies is a critically important test to confirm the diagnosis. However, the frequency of paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis is low and considering that indiscriminate antibody evaluation reduces the positive diagnostic value, careful selection of patients for onconeural antibody testing remains a crucial issue.2

When should we suspect a paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis? When we recognise particular neurological symptoms typically observed in patients with paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis …

View Full Text


  • Contributors FG is the sole contributor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests FG holds a patent licensed to Euroimmun for the use of IgLON5 in an autoantibody test, for which he receives royalties, and receives honoraria from MedLink Neurology for his role as associate editor.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

Linked Articles