Article Text

Download PDFPDF
2 Personalized closed-loop neurostimulation for depression
  1. Katherine Scangos
  1. Psychiatrist and neuroscientist who focuses on circuit-level models of depression as an Assistant Professor in the University of California, San Francisco Department of Psychiatry. Dr. Katherine Scangos, clinical work centers on interventional psychiatry. She co-directs the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Neuromodulation clinic at UCSF. She also conducts quantitative neuroscience research on the development of electrophysiologic biomarkers in patients with mood disorders and works to develop new forms of brain stimulation therapies. Her goal is to translate these findings into a better understanding of neuropsychiatric illness and the development of novel therapeutics. She currently co- leads a clinical trial of personalized closed-loop deep brain stimulation in patients with depression. Dr. Scangos is a recipient of the National Institute of Mental Healths Outstanding Resident Award Program, a Brain and Behavioral Research Foundation NARSAD Young Investigator Grant, and a 1907 Trailblazer award. She receives funding from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and National Institute of Mental Health. She received her medical degree and a doctorate in neuroscience from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (MD/PD). She subsequently completed psychiatry residency at University of California, Davis and a fellowship in Interventional Psychiatry at University of California, San Francisco


Major depression (MDD) is a common psychiatric condition and a leading cause of disability worldwide. While psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are effective treatments for the majority of people, a substantial number of patients remain refractory to all available treatments. Neuromodulation such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is a promising solution for these people. However, results from randomized controlled trials of DBS for depression have been inconsistent, suggesting novel strategies for neuromodulation are needed. One such strategy is personalized closed- loop neurostimulation. It addresses the challenge posed by the etiological and diagnostic heterogeneity of depression. Personalized closed-loop neurostimulation involves individualized target selection, customized biomarker driven stimulation, and continuous neural sensing so that treatment is both spatially and temporally individualized.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.