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Association between Apolipoprotein ∊4 and long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury
  1. A H P Willemse-van Son (a.vanson-willemse{at}
  1. Erasmus Medical Centre, Netherlands
    1. G M Ribbers (g.ribbers{at}
    1. Rijndam Rehabilitation Centre, Netherlands
      1. W C J Hop (w.hop{at}
      1. Erasmus Medical Centre, Netherlands
        1. C M van Duijn (c.vanduijn{at}
        1. Erasmus Medical Centre, Netherlands
          1. H J Stam (h.j.stam{at}
          1. Erasmus Medical Centre, Netherlands


            BackgroundTo investigate the effect of carrying the APOE-∊4 allele on global functional outcome, on activity limitations and participation restrictions, and on community integration at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after traumatic brain injury.

            Method: The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), the Sickness Impact Profile-68 (SIP-68), and the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) were assessed in 79 moderate and severe traumatic brain injury patients at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months post-injury. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed with APOE-∊4 status and time of measurement as independent variables and the GOS, SIP-68, and CIQ as dependent variables. Analyses were adjusted for baseline age, gender, and the Glasgow Coma Score.

            Results: Patients with the APOE-∊4 allele had a significantly better global functional outcome on the GOS than patients without the APOE-∊4 allele. No significant associations were found between APOE-∊4 status and the SIP-68 and CIQ.

            Discussion: In contrast to other studies, we found that carrying the APOE-∊4 allele had a protective influence on outcome. Multiple mechanisms, and in some cases competitive mechanisms, may explain the variable relation between the APOE-∊4 allele and outcome after traumatic brain injury.

            • Apolipoprotein E4
            • craniocerebral trauma
            • prognosis
            • traumatic brain injury

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