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Dipyridamole plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in the secondary prevention after TIA or stroke: a meta-analysis by risk.
  1. PHA Halkes (phalkes{at}
  1. University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
    1. LJ Gray (laura.gray{at}
    1. University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
      1. PMW M Bath (philip.bath{at}
      1. University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
        1. HC Diener (hans.diener{at}
        1. University of Essen, Germany
          1. B Guiraud-Chaumeil (guiraud-chaumeil.b{at}
          1. CHU de Toulouse-Purpan, France
            1. FM Yatsu (frank.m.yatsu{at}
            1. University of Texas, United States
              1. A Algra (a.algra{at}
              1. UMC Utrecht, Netherlands


                Objectives: The aim of this meta-analysis was to study the effect of combination therapy with aspirin and dipyridamole (A+D) over aspirin alone (ASA) in secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin and to perform subgroup analyses to identify patients that might benefit most from secondary prevention with A+D.

                Data sources: The previously published meta-analysis of individual patient data was updated with data from ESPRIT (N=2,739); trials without data on the comparison of A+D versus ASA were excluded.

                Review methods: A meta-analysis was performed using Cox regression, including several subgroup analyses and following baseline risk stratification. Results: A total of 7,612 patients (5 trials) were included in the analyses, 3,800 allocated to A+D and 3,812 to ASA alone. The trial-adjusted hazard ratio for the composite event of vascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.72-0.92). Hazard ratios did not differ in subgroup analyses based on age, sex, qualifying event, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, ischemic heart disease, aspirin dose, type of vessel disease and dipyridamole formulation, nor across baseline risk strata as assessed with two different risk scores. A+D were also more effective than ASA alone in preventing recurrent stroke, HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.68 – 0.90).

                Conclusion: The combination of aspirin and dipyridamole is more effective than aspirin alone in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke of presumed arterial origin in the secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular events. This superiority was found in all subgroups and was independent of baseline risk.

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