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Isolated bladder dysfunction in human T lymphotropic virus type 1 infection: 10 years of follow-up
  1. Marcus Tulius T Silva1,
  2. Otávio M Espíndola2,
  3. Ana Claudia Leite1,
  4. Marco A Lima1,
  5. Doris Schor2,
  6. Abelardo Araújo1
  1. 1Laboratory for Clinical Research in Neuroinfection, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  2. 2Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  1. Correspondence to Marcus Tulius T Silva, Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Neuroinfecção Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, FIOCRUZ Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; marcustulius{at}

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Dear Editor,

Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the aetiological agent of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a neurological disease characterised by a slowly progressive paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. Most HTLV-1-infected individuals remain asymptomatic throughout their lives, and the factors that play a role to conversion from asymptomatic to symptomatic status are still a matter of discussion. It is believed that <1% of HTLV-1-infected individuals will develop HAM/TSP. Host genetic factors and the immunological response against HTLV-1 are pivotal to HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL), and there are evidences that a high PVL is associated with HAM/TSP and with other HTLV-1-associated diseases such as peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.1 In addition, some aspects …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval CEP INI FIOCRUZ.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.