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Moving forward to well-controlled trials in tardive syndromes
Tardive syndromes (TDS) refer to the clinical spectrum of persistent hyperkinetic, hypokinetic and sensory phenomena that stem from chronic exposure to dopamine receptor-blocking drugs. Correspondingly, the clinical presentation of three times a day is diverse. Although three times a day have been a major area of movement disorder clinical practice for decades, their pathophysiological bases remain poorly understood, and the optimal treatment approach for patients affected by these disabling disorders remains unclear.1
Functional neurosurgery has gained increasing recognition as a viable treatment option for severe and medication-refractory cases of three times a day. However, deep brain stimulation (DBS) for TDS is a challenging treatment due to the presence of multiple …
Contributors CZ and BS wrote this paper.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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