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Original research
Long-term outcomes of moyamoya disease versus atherosclerosis-associated moyamoya vasculopathy using high-resolution MR vessel wall imaging


Objectives We aimed to compare the long-term outcomes and surgical benefits between moyamoya disease (MMD) and atherosclerosis-associated moyamoya vasculopathy (AS-MMV) using high-resolution MRI (HRMRI).

Methods MMV patients were retrospectively included and divided into the MMD and AS-MMV groups according to vessel wall features on HRMRI. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression were performed to compare the incidence of cerebrovascular events and prognosis of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) treatment between MMD and AS-MMV.

Results Of the 1173 patients (mean age: 42.4±11.0 years; male: 51.0%) included in the study, 881 were classified into the MMD group and 292 into the AS-MMV group. During the average follow-up of 46.0±24.7 months, the incidence of cerebrovascular events in the MMD group was higher compared with that in the AS-MMV group before (13.7% vs 7.2%; HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.96; p=0.008) and after propensity score matching (6.1% vs 7.3%; HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.34 to 3.76; p=0.002). Additionally, patients treated with EDAS had a lower incidence of events than those not treated with EDAS, regardless of whether they were in the MMD (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.97; p=0.043) or AS-MMV group (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.98; p=0.048).

Conclusions Patients with MMD had a higher risk of ischaemic stroke than those with AS-MMV, and patients with both MMD and AS-MMV could benefit from EDAS. Our findings suggest that HRMRI could be used to identify those who are at a higher risk of future cerebrovascular events.

  • MRI

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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