eLetters

559 e-Letters

  • Snack Shacks, Statin Islands, and Brain Bleeds

    The interplay among statins, serum cholesterol, and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with and without prior history of ischemic stroke is controversial.

    Studies over the last decade, like the GERFHS study,[1] have concluded that increasing serum cholesterol levels may decrease the risk of ICH. This finding was confirmed in one of the largest observational studies[2] which estimated an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.94 (0.92-0.96) with every 10 mg increase in baseline serum total cholesterol level. Similar interaction was observed with increasing LDL cholesterol quartiles (LDL > 168 mg/dL; HR 0.53 [0.45-0.63]).[2]

    However, the evidence on the effect of statins in ICH is less clear. Studies ranging from the SPARCL trial[3] which showed an increased risk of recurrent ICH with high dose statins to the recent meta-analysis by Ziff et al.,[4] which described no significant increase of the risk of ICH with statins, are few examples. Similar non-significant trends were seen in the risk of ICH after prior ischemic stroke and prior ICH.[3] Prior retrospective studies also described a neutral effect of statins on recurrent ICH. Interestingly, analysis from the largest administrative database in Israel[2] showed a surprising result; statin use might be associated with decreased ICH risk. Furthermore, an indirect, albeit unique measurement of dose-response using average atorvastatin equivalent daily dose (AAEDD) churned out interesting figures – a HR of 0....

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  • A response from Noble et al. to e-letter by the Psychology Task Force of the International League Against Epilepsy

    Dear Editor,
    Re: A response from Noble et al. to e-letter by Psychology Task Force of the International League Against Epilepsy
    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been recommended for treating depression in people with epilepsy (PWE).[1, 2] The clinical significance of the effects of CBT for PWE has though, not been considered. We therefore systematically searched the literature for randomised controlled trials of CBT for PWE [3] and used Jacobson’s criteria [4] to empirically determine whether PWE made clinically reliable improvement. We compared this to that seen in the control arms of these trials.
    Our main findings were that the likelihood of statistically reliable improvement in symptoms of depression was significantly higher for those PWE randomised to CBT compared to control conditions. The overall proportion of PWE achieving reliable improvement was low – 30% compared to 10% in the control arms. For most PWE, symptoms were unchanged.
    The proportion of PWE who improve following CBT is limited. It should serve as a clarion call for the development of more effective treatments. Indeed, our review may have inflated CBT’s benefit since some trials included PWE without clinical distress at baseline and so it was not possible to apply Jacobson’s second, more stringent criterion and calculate for what proportion CBT also resulted in recovery.
    The Psychology Task Force of the International League Against Epilepsy submitted a response to ou...

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  • Response to a letter by Dr. G. Banerjee

    We read with great interest the recent report of Banerjee and colleagues of three cases of minimally symptomatic cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) cases, drawing attention to the possibility of a wider spectrum of clinical manifestations in patients with CAA-ri than previously described1.
    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is a rare form of meningoencephalitis, presenting acutely with cognitive decline, seizures, headache and /or encephalopathy in most patients. The prognosis is poor even in patients under immunosuppressive treatment, with a mortality rate of 30% and only a minority of patients making a full recovery2-3. However, in the three cases reported by Banerjee and colleagues, patients presented with mild symptoms despite the magnitude of the MRI findings and made a full clinical and radiologic recovery in 2 of the cases with immunosuppressant treatment and in the remaining without any treatment.
    We have recently evaluated a similar patient, that presented with mild transient symptoms in whom the diagnosis was made following the finding of characteristic CAA-ri changes in brain MRI.
    He was a 62 year-old-man with a past history of hypertension, who was referred to the Emergency Department (ER) due to moderate frontal headache followed by left hemisensory numbness with Jacksonian march lasting a few minutes. He was asymptomatic on arrival at the ER and his neurological examination was normal. He perfor...

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  • Area postrema syndrome: another feature of anti-GFAP encephalomyelitis

    Dear Editor,

    We read with great interest the recent paper of Sechi et al. that describes 13 patients with anti-GFAP related myelitis and compares them with 41 patients with anti-AQP4 related myelitis.1 To date, very little data is available about anti-GFAP related disorders.2-3 Sechi et al. highlight some differences between the two entities to help clinicians differentiate them.1 One of these clinical differences relates to area postrema syndrome (APS). Indeed, it is well known that APS is a classical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, particularly among anti-AQP4 positive patients.4 Sechi et al. report this syndrome as a prodromal event in 20% of anti-AQP4 related myelitis. Conversely, the authors do not report any case of APS preceding or accompanying myelitis related to anti-GFAP.1 Given these data, APS could be an indicator for ruling out anti-GFAP encephalomyelitis, particularly useful for centers that do not yet have access to biological testing for anti-GFAP Abs.
    However, we report the case of a 41-year-old woman who in April 2016 developed intractable nausea and vomiting lasting for five weeks and leading to 35 kilograms in weight loss. An extensive search for a digestive disease was negative, and no neurological explorations were performed. One month following the resolution of digestive symptoms, she developed mental confusion, diplopia, dysarthria, dizziness, bilateral blurred vision (with optic disc edema) and paraparesis. Brain...

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  • Models for predicting risk of dementia: improvement still needed

    Hou et al. are to be commended for an in-depth systematic review of currently available dementia risk models that quantify the probability of developing dementia, covering both studies on community-dwelling individuals as well as clinic-based MCI studies.1 One of the key conclusions was that “the predictive ability of existing dementia risk models is acceptable, but the lack of validation limited the extensive application of the models for dementia risk prediction in general population or across subgroups in the population.” Based on recent insights, we believe that the discriminative ability of existing dementia prediction models in the general population is currently not acceptable for clinical use.

    We recently validated four promising dementia risk models (CAIDE, ANU-ADRI, BDSI, and DRS).2 In addition to external validation of these models in the Dutch general population, we also sought to investigate how these models compared to predicting dementia based on the age component of these models only. We found that full models do not have better discriminative properties than age alone. As such, we would like to make three suggestions to establish a reliable dementia prediction model.

    First, prediction models typically only report model performance on the basis of a full model.1-4 For dementia risk, however, age plays a pivotal role. Therefore, any new model should compare its predictive accuracy to age alone.

    Second, the setting in which a prediction...

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  • Why it’s still important to consider referring patients with epilepsy (PWE) with depression for psychotherapy – including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Response from the Psychology Task Force of the International League Against Epilepsy

    Imagine you are an epilepsy health professional seeing a patient with clinical symptoms of depression. What should you do? If you have read Noble et al.’s [1] recent JNNP review, entitled ‘Cognitive-behavioural therapy does not meaningfully reduce depression in most people with epilepsy…’ you may have become sceptical about the potential of CBT, or psychotherapy in general, to alleviate depression in people with epilepsy (PWE). This recent systematic review pooled data from five small randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with some elements of CBT for PWE, and performed an analysis of reliable change. ‘Pooled risk difference indicated likelihood of reliable improvement in depression symptoms was significantly higher for those randomised to CBT’, but the authors focused on the finding that ‘only’ 30% of patients receiving interventions, compared to 10% of controls, could be considered ‘reliably improved’. Emphasising the fact that over 2/3 of patients did not meet this criterion for improvement, the authors suggest CBT is ‘ineffective’, has ‘limited benefit’ and could even lead to lower ‘self–esteem’ and ‘helplessness’. Notably, the latter conclusions were based on hypothetical reactions to treatment, rather than empirically supported outcomes.

    Therefore, the purpose of this letter, written by the Psychology Task Force of the International League Against...

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  • Sleep apnoea and nocturnal hypoventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Boentert et al. investigated the prevalence of sleep apnoea and nocturnal hypoventilation (NH) in 250 patients with non-ventilated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by considering gender and severity of bulbar dysfunction (1). Prevalence of NH and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >5/hour was 40.0% and 45.6%, respectively, and 22.3% of patients had both NH and sleep apnoea. Sleep apnoea was significantly more common in male patients and negatively associated with bulbar function. I have some concerns with this study.

    First, the authors did not conduct stratified analysis by gender. As the prevalence of sleep apnoea differs by gender, the association between sleep apnoea, NH and severity of bulbar dysfunction should be analyzed by stratification with gender.

    Second, the authors conducted univariate analyses, and adjustment of independent variables cannot be made. Although the number of patients is limited, recommendation for the use of transcutaneous capnography should be based by appropriate adjustments of confounders.

    Finally, Park et al. evaluated the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction in patients with ALS, and patients with nocturnal hypoxia showed poor memory retention and retrieval efficiency. They speculated that patients with ALS might be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation during sleep, because of the weakness of the respiratory muscles. In order to evaluate the effect of desaturation on ALS...

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  • Reply to “The eye of the beholder and risks of eminence based medicine”

    We appreciate Dr. Laura S. Boylan’s interest in our article. However, her viewpoint rather strikingly exemplifies the behaviors that she mistakenly believes we were guilty of in our report, beginning with the “eminence based” statements “in my view” occurring twice in the first paragraph and her conclusion with a personal “old saw I use in teaching”. We strongly disagree with her misinterpretation about our application of “cognitive bias” in the selection of our patients for this case-control study. In fact, most patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) had functional complications ascertained after several visits –requiring a diagnostic revision once they fulfilled the appropriate positive criteria.1 The diagnostic “delay” in part may have highlighted the absent recognition of functional comorbidities in PD prior to our study, forcing a conservative approach before ascertaining what may be considered a “second” diagnosis in these patients. Furthermore, in contrast to Dr. Boylan’s suggestion, we did not select patients on the basis of comorbid depression, anxiety, cognitive symptoms, pain, nausea, or fatigue. Instead these features segregated more commonly among cases than controls after the patient selection had been completed. She argues that we considered them “supportive” for a diagnosis of functional movement disorder, but we did not. We have instead emphasized the potentially misleading influence of both history and psychiatric features and argued in favor of a diagnos...

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  • The eye of the beholder and risks of eminence based medicine

    In my view the data presented in this study (1) which are interpreted as indicating a high prevalence of functional movement disorders (FMD) in PD might also be interpreted as suggesting that diagnostic delay is common in PD, particularly among women patients who present as "high maintenance" patients. The diagnosis of functional movement disorders is a matter of expert opinion and in my view problems with study design and interpretation support rather than minimize cognitive and confirmation bias in this study.
    Subjects all met UK brain bank criteria for PD. Subjects diagnosed with FND in this study had high rates of family history of PD. They had depression, anxiety, cognitive symptoms, pain, nausea, fatigue all common complaints among the population in general and most particularly in PD. The presence of these symptoms before or after diagnosis of PD is considered by the authors as supportive for a diagnosis of FMD. However, these same symptoms are known to be associated with PD and might be considered supportive of a PD diagnosis.
    Disparities in healthcare for women are well established (2). Neurology has a long history of mistakes distinguishing the "functional" from the "organic" (e.g.3). To choose one example people with blepharospasm, mostly women, were institutionalized long-term as the disease was not recognized as neurologic. Women commonly encounter dismissal in the medical context and this can occasion missed opportuni...

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  • Paradoxal increased incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in non-mechanically ventilated Guillain-Barré syndrome patients: the role of resilience?

    Dear Editor,

    We read with interest the study presented by Berg et al [1] that showed that prolonged mechanical ventilation (more than 2 months) in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) was associated with poorer outcome and more residual deficits compared to non-ventilated GBS patients.

    We recently found very similar results in the same population of patients. Nevertheless, it should be precised that despite this, we could not found any difference in quality of life compared to the general French population [2]. Berg et al. also found that ventilated patients were less likely to have residual fatigue symptoms compared to non-ventilated GBS patients, respectively 20% versus 54% (p=0.007). Among 13 prolonged mechanically ventilated GBS, we could show that 22% of patients displayed DSM IV criteria for long-term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [2]. Since one of our main hypothesis was that PTSD symptoms were mainly related to the mechanical ventilation, we assessed long-term PTSD in 20 non-ventilated GBS patients (Table). Unexpectedly, 65% of these non-ventilated patients had PTSD as compared to 22% in the ventilated group found in our previous study (Table). As for fatigue, we would have expected a correlation between the severity of the disease (especially mechanical ventilation), and the incidence of PTSD.

    One explanation of these unexpected results could be that the acute stress induced by the temporary paralysis, the traumatic aspects of intubation an...

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