Table 1

Evidence for seizure in 26 cases of SUDEP

1Bitten tongue, incontinent of urine, blood in corner of mouth
2Bitten tongue (several places) and lip, blood/mucus nares
3Bitten tongue, disrupted environment, fallen off bed
4Died am soon after waking; timing of habitual seizures
5Died early am after waking; timing of habitual seizures
6Found dead near video/TV screen - PGE, clinical and EEG photosensitivity;  previous GTCS only in similar circumstances
8Fall off bed, incontinent of urine, bruised tip of tongue
10Died am soon after waking after a late night out, JME, timing of habitual seizures
11Incontinent of urine
12Partial fall off bed
13No good evidence; disrupted environment, fall off chair
14Incontinent of urine, pink/bloodstained secretions on pillow
17Contorted facial expression as in a seizure
18Bitten tongue, computer game on, JME, known photosensitivity
19Witnessed tonic clonic seizure
22Partial fall off bed, facial expression as in a seizure
23Bitten lip, secretions
24Fall off bed, nocturnal attacks only
25No evidence
26No evidence
28Bitten lip, incontinent of urine
29Incontinent of urine
30Bitten tongue, partial fall off bed, incontinent of urine
31Tongue clenched between teeth
32Secretions, tongue clenched between teeth
33Witnessed tonic clonic seizure
  • Cases 7, 9, 15, 16, 20, 21, 27 and 34 were excluded (see text).

  • PGE = primary generalised epilepsy; GTCS = generalised tonic clonic seizure.

  • JME = juvenile monoclonic epilepsy.