Table 1

Diagnoses, sex, age, presence of bulbar or pseudobulbar signs, history of recent chest infection, and swallowing speed in the groups with normal or abnormal swallowing (as defined in text)

Diagnosis of individual casesSexAge (y)Bulbar signsPseudobulbar signsChest infectionSwallowing speed (%)
Normal swallowing:
 Hereditary spastic paraplegia plusF31000100
 Multiple sclerosisM44100102
 Multiple sclerosisF3400078
 Multiple sclerosisF3800076
 Multiple sclerosisF6210076
 Multiple sclerosisF3811047
 Motor neuron diseaseM5511094
 Motor neuron diseaseM48000110
 Motor neuron diseaseM6601160
 Motor neuron diseaseM4501084
 Myasthenia gravisF4210158
 Myasthenia gravisM620207
Abnormal swallowing:
 Lateral medullary strokeM431002
 Multiple sclerosisM4000038
 Motor neuron diseaseF591117
 Motor neuron diseaseF5511022
 Distal spinal muscular atrophyF3810018
 Bilateral partial Xth palsyM711012
 Oculopharyngeal dystrophyF4510015
 Mitochondrial disorderF4210035
  • Bulbar signs = the presence (1) or absence (0) of jaw, facial, palatal, pharyngeal, or tongue weakness (or fasciculation) of presumed lower motor neuron or muscular origin or depressed or absent palatal or pharyngeal sensation; pseudobulbar signs = presence (1) or absence (0) of a brisk jaw jerk, facial or jaw weakness or spastic dysarthria of presumed upper motor neuron origin; chest infection = infection either in the past year or during the current acute illness. Swallowing speed is expressed as % predicted (see methods). — Incomplete data at time of testing.