Table 3

Active external interventions in neurogenic dysphagia

Intervention categoryExample
ConservativeDietary intervention, supplements, thickeners
Enhanced swallowingPalatal prostheses, electrical stimulation, cricopharyngeal myotomy
Enteral feedingNasogastric tube, gastrostomy, jejunostomy
Parenteral feeding
Pulmonary functionDomiciliary (nocturnal) ventilation, improved bronchial access through tracheostomy
Airway protection from aspirationVocal cord manipulation (Teflon), partial cord closure, laryngectomy
Salivary secretionsReduce, thicken, divert