Table 1

Included studies1-150

StudyParticipantsInterventionNumber randomisedAllocation concealment
 Muizelaar et al 12 Patients with head injuries Glasgow coma score (GCS)⩽8, age 3 years or olderHyperventilation: paco2 25 ± 2 mm Hg77Sealed opaque envelopes
Normoventilation: paco2 35 ± 2 mm Hg
 Sayre et al 13 Intubated head trauma victims GCS⩽12, age 18 years or more before arrival in hospitalMannitol: 5 ml/kg 20% mannitol as rapidly as possible44 randomised: 3 postrandomisation exclusions because did not meet allPharmacy prepared blinded solutions
Control: 5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl prerandomisation inclusion criteria
CSF drainage:
 No randomised trials identified
 Eisenberg et al 17 Severe head injury GCS⩽7 Aged 15–50, raised intracranial pressure (ICP) refractory to conventional managementPentobarbitone: loading dose 10 mg/kg over 30 min 5 mg/kg every hour for three hours80 randomised: 7 postrandomisation exclusions because did not meet all prerandomisation inclusion criteriaSealed opaque envelopes
Maintenance 1 mg/kg/h with serum concentration monitoring
 Ward et al 18 Consecutive head injured patients over the age of 12 years who had either an acute intradural haematoma or no mass lesion whose best motor response was abnormal flexion or extension. Treatment started after head injury regardless of ICPPentobarbitone: loading dose 5–10 mg/kg until burst suppression on EEG53Not specified
Maintenance 1–3 mg/kg with serum concentration monitoring
  • 1-150 A detailed description of randomised trials of steroids in head injury has been presented elsewhere.