Table 1

Aetiologies of secondary chorea and dystonia1-150

Primary causeMechanism
Hypoxia-ischaemiaGlobal hypoperfusion
ToxinsCellular (mitochondrial) injury
Neurotransmitter imbalanceReceptor antagonism
Receptor stimulation
Neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition
Neurotransmitter depletion
Altered neurotransmitter turnover
InfectionVasculopathy due to antibodies or organism
Antibodies to basal ganglia epitopes
Direct basal ganglia invasion by the organism
Neuronal injury by an elaborated cytotoxin
Antibody mediatedVasculopathy
Cross reaction with basal ganglia epitopes
Metabolic disordersEndocrine dysfunction
Electrolyte abnormalities
  • 1-150 More than one mechanism may be involved in the generation of specific dyskinesias.