Table 1

Aetiological classification of diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes4-150 (B cell destruction, usually leading to  absolute insulin deficiency.
 Immune mediated
Idiopathic
Type 2 diabetes4-150 (may range from predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominantly secretory defect with insulin resistance)
Other specific types
Genetic defects of β cell function
Chromosome 12, HNF-1 (formerly MODY3)
Chromosome 7, glucokinase (formerly MODY2)
Chromosome 20, HNF-4 (formerly MODY1)
Mitochondrial DNA
Others
Genetic defects in insulin action
Type A insulin resistance
Leprechaunism
Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome
Lipoatrophic diabetes
Others
Diseases of the exocrine pancreas
Pancreatitis
Trauma/pancreatectomy
Neoplasia
Cystic fibrosis
Haemochromatosis
Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy
Others
Endocrinopathies
Acromegaly
Cushing’s syndrome
Glucagonoma
Pheochromocytoma
Hyperthyroidism
Somatostatinoma
Aldosteronoma
Others
Drug or chemical induced
Glucocorticoids
Pentamidine
Nicotinic acid
Vacor
Thyroid hormone
Diazoxide
ß-adrenergic agonists
Thiazides
Phenytoin
Interferon
Others
Infections
Congenital rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Others
Uncommon forms of immune mediated diabetes
”Stiff man” syndrome, associated with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
Anti-insulin receptor antibodies
Others
Other genetic syndromes sometimes associated with diabetes
Down’s syndrome
Klinefelter’s syndrome
Turner’s syndrome
Wolfram syndrome
Friedreich’s ataxia
Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy
Porphyria
Prader Willi syndrome
Others
Gestational diabetes mellitus
  • 4-150 Patients with any form of diabetes may require insulin treatment at some stage of their disease. Such use of insulin does not, of itself, classify the patient.