Table 1

Neurocutaneous disorders associated with stroke

Amyloidosis VIICutis laxa
Behçet’s diseaseErythema nodosum, genital and oral aphthous ulcers
Cerebral cavernous malformationsRarely, angiomas
Diabetes mellitusNecrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, poorly healing ulcers
EndocarditisPetechiae, Osler’s nodes, splinter haemorrhages
Fabry diseaseAngiokeratoma—clusters of punctate dark red to blue black non-blanching macules or papules; symmetric, starting at the umbilicus and knees, then buttocks and scrotum
Haemolytic-uraemic syndromeErythematous necrotic skin lesions
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasiaTelangiectasias
HomocystinuriaSparse hair, malar flush, livedo reticularis, diffuse hypopigmentation
HypercholesterolaemiaXanthomas, xanthelasma
Progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford)Aged skin, alopecia, generalised hypotrichosis, sparse or absent eyebrows, scleroderma- like, thin skin, midfacial cyanosis
Neurocutaneous angiomaLarge irregular haemangiomas, angiomas
Pseudoxanthoma elasticumPseudoxanthoma, multiple papules, peau d’orange skin, angioid streaks, subcutaneous calcification usually in blood vessels
Systemic lupus erythematosusPhotosensitivity, malar rash, telangiectasia, discoid lupus, patchy alopecia, mucosal ulcers, angioneurotic oedema, Raynaud’s phenomenon, subcutaneous nodules, palpable purpura, gangrene, erythema multiforme (rare)
Takayasu’s arteritisCutaneous necrotising venulitis—palpable purpura
Werner (Pangeria)Scleroderma-like skin, graying hair and baldness, leg ulcers, progressive scalp alopecia, sparse body hair, telangiectasia, mottled pigmentation, loss of subcutaneous fat, subcutaneous calcification