Table 2

2-150 Evolution of TMD: clinical symptoms 1887–1956

Author and yearSymptoms
   The pre-Costen era
Annandale T 188717 TMJ Pain during chewing, joint fixation pain during chewing, “clicking” type jaw sounds
Lanz W 190918 pain during chewing, “clicking” of the jaw
Summa R 191819 TMJ Pain, mastication weakness
Pringle J 191820 TMJ Pain, locking of the joint
Wright WH 192021 TMJ Pain, “traumatic deafness,” weakness of deglutition, deafness, tinnitus, mental torpor
Monson GS 192122 Weakness of deglutition, deafness, tinnitus, mental torpor
Decker JC 192523 TMJ “Grinding and crackling,” low pitched tinnitus, deafness
Wakeley CPG 192924 TMJ Pain, deafness, vertigo, speech defects, personality changes
Goodfriend DJ 193325 Deafness, vertigo, speech defects, personality changes
   The post-Costen era
Costen JB 1934,1937,19391 2 3 Deafness, stuffy ears at mealtime, snapping noises on chewing, auricular and periauricular pain, low pitched tinnitus, vertigo, “sinus symptoms,” vertex and occipital headache, end of day headache, burning skin at side of nose, pain and paraesthesiae “in distribution of chorda tympani,” pain anterior 2/3 tongue, trismus, limited TMJ opening
Riesner SE 193626 “Hearing disturbances”
Seaver EP 193727 “Reflex pain and neuralgic headache” of face, eye, ear, nose, and throat; xerostomia, pruritis and herpes of external ear canal, stuffiness, tinnitus, vertigo, deafness
Yule OJ 193728 Facial sagging and deformities from condylar slippage, “personality departures,” deafness, tinnitus, vertigo
Batson OV 193829 “Costen’s syndrome,” (also) pharyngeal paraesthesiae and fullness
Schopper AF 193830 “Costen’s syndrome,” (also) TMJ subluxation, “popping jaws”
Schuyler CH 193931 Trigeminal neuralgia
Dingman RO 194032 TMJ Pain, inefficient chewing
Block LS 194733 “Costen (sic) syndrome”
Sicher H 19484 Pain in neck and throat referred from arthritic TMJs
Kiehn CL 195234 TMJ Crepitus, locking, pain on opening
Schwartz LL 1955, 19565 6 Pain in muscles of mastication, tension, anxiety, neuroses
  • 2-150 Table 2 is intended only to demonstrate general evolutionary trends of TMD symptoms and may not cite all authors who originally described them. Some of these authors disagreed with the specificity of the symptoms listed.