Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients with new adult onset tics

Patient Sex Age of onset Description of tics Distribution of tics Family history of tic disorder? Associated psychiatric symptoms Medication trials Course Follow up (y) Additional features
1M24Multiple motor ticsNeck and armsYNo benefit from TRHX, CLNZ, TBZ, PMZStable2
2M30Primary vocalization tics with multiple motor ticsFace, armsYImprovement on VPMWaxing and waning, improved by follow up45
3F32Single motor ticNeckNNo benefitStable18Tic developed after straining neck while weight lifting
4M33Multiple vocal and motor ticsLarynx, neck, armsNNo benefit from CBZ, CLNZStable2Tics developed after MVA with head trauma
5M40Multiple motor ticsFaceNNo benefit from DZP, CLNZ, TBZ, PMZWaxing and waning4
6M41Multiple phonic and motor ticsFace, neck, armsNBotulinum toxinImproved20Tics developed after MVA
7M42Primary neck tic with multiple facial and arm ticsFace, neckYOCDUntreatedImproved6
8M49Multiple motor ticsFace, neck, armsNOCDNo benefit from CLNZ, HAL, PMZWaxing and waning1.5
9F69Single vocalisationVocalNOCDUntreatedStable5Tics developed during pharyngitis
10M46Multiple complex motor ticsFace, neck, armsYSubstance misuse disorder-Unresponsive to levodopa, helped with CLNZWaxing and waning2Tics developed during period of heavy cocaine use
11M40Single complex motor tic: blowing movementsFaceNSchizo affectiveUntreated/lost to follow upPersistent5Tic status developed after 5 year exposure to molindone
12M46Single respiratory ticFace, larynxNOCDImprovement on DZPWaxing and waning3
13M25Multiple verbal tics, including coprolaliaVocalYOCDUntreatedWaxing and waning15
  • CBZ=Carbamazepine; CLNZ=clonazepam; DZP=diazepam; HAL=haloperidol; MVA=motor vehicle accident; OCD=obsessive- compulsive disorder; PMZ= pimozide; TBZ=tetrabenazine; TRHX=trihexiphenidyl; VPM=verapamil.