Table 4

Preoperative characteristics of patients with spasmodic torticollis (ST) with none/minimal versus moderate/severe degenerative changes in the cervical spine

ST without or only minimal degenerative changes (n=20) ST with moderate or severe degenerative changes (n=14) p Value
Median age (y (range))53.5 (23–61)53.5 (38–66)NS
Sex (M:F)10:106:8NS
Mean duration of ST (y (SD))11.5 (6.9)14 (8.1)NS
Median duration (y (range))10.5 (2–26)12 (4–37)
Duration (y) without effective treatment
 Mean (SD)4.8 (4)10.1 (7.2)0.009
 Median (SD)3 (1–15)8 (1–30)
Acute onset after trauma12NS
Delayed onset after trauma32NS
Tardive dystonia01NS
Mean (SD) severity4-150 21.2 (3.8)18.8 (4.3)NS
Mean (SD) disability4-150 14.8 (6.4)15.6 (5.8)NS
Mean (SD) pain4-150 11.5 (5.1)12.1 (2.7)NS
Primary BT treatment failure36NS
Mean (SD) head tilt restriction score2.5 (2)4.1 (2.2)0.03
Mean (SD) head turn restriction score1.7 (2.1)3.4 (2.5)0.04
Mean (SD) overall head movement restriction score4.2 (3.1)7.6 (4.1)0.015
Mean (SD) tremor severity1.4 (1.8)4.7 (2.7)0.01
  • 4-150 Determined by the TWSTRS.