Efficacy of different stimuli and manoeuvres in triggering PED attacks

Type of stimulus Onset of PED
after begin of stimulation(s)
Overlasting of PED after end of stimulation(s) Severity of PED1-150
Thermal stimulus to palm of the hand (−5°C)No reaction
Brushing of palm of the handNo reaction
Voluntary contraction of forearm muscles300300+++
Passive movement:
 Distal interphalangeal joint26080+
 Wrist80420++
Electrical stimulation:
 Finger (ring electrode)60120+
 Wrist230180++
Magnetic stimulation:
 Motor cortex135240++
 Brachial plexus135++
Sham magnetic stimulation over the motor cortexNo reaction
Vibration of forearm flexors:
 100 Hz55400+++
 50 Hz15320+++
  • 1-150 Mild (+), medium (++), maximal (+++).

  • 1-151 Not measured.