Table 2

Severity of CD and dysphagia before and after surgery

Before surgery After surgery
Overall severity2-150 20.7(5.8)2-151 14.8(5.1)
Head rotation 50.4(31)2-153 26.5 (22.6)
Head tilt19.2 (12.2)14.5 (6.9)
Subjective dysphagia score0.2 (0.4)0.6 (1)
Videofluoroscopy:
 Global rating2.3 (1.1)2.5 (0.5)
 Oral bolus preparation0.7 (1.2)1.1 (1.1)
 Tongue base retraction 2.5(1.6)2-152 1.4 (0.9)
 Initiation of swallowing reflex1.8 (1)2.2 (0.8)
 Hyoid elevation1.9 (1.7)1.3 (1.7)
 Residue1.4 (1)1.2 (1.2)
 Symmetric swallow78
 Asymmetric swallow54
  • Apart from symmetry of swallowing all values are means (SD).

  • 2-150 Determined by the TWSTRS; for dysphagia scores higher numbers indicate worse function.

  • 2-151 p=0.017;

  • 2-152 p=0.027 (Wilcoxon signed rank test).

  • 2-153 p=0.034 (paired samples t test).

  • Significant improvements are indicated bybold numbers.