Table 1

Summary of studies of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's patients with disease showing clinical associations

StudyNo of
Controls/ comparison groupSampleAssociation with visual hallucinationsComments
AgeDurationMedication doseCognitive impairmentDisease severity/ disabilityDepressionSleep disturbance
Fernandez et al199229 3020Random clinical++8 patients' VHs associated with off periods
Haeske-Dewick 199515 1620Clinic survey: initial mailing+++− (when adjusted for age)?Not premorbid IQ
Klein et al 199731 2958Prospective clinical * * ++ *Matched for age/duration. MMSE fell over follow up; CT measures not different
Sanchez-Ramos et al199616 55214Consecutive clinical+++++ (history)+Higher anticholinergic and bromocriptine in VH-ve group
Grahamet al199717 3297Clinic survey?Trend+ dopamine agonists+ late onset only+ motor disorder in early onsetLess in late onset?Main analysis early/late onset of halls v duration matched controls
Inzelberg et al199853 3576Consecutive clinical+ (lifetime)++ (reported in AH+VH group only)?Emphasis on combined auditory and visual hallucinations
10Aud +VH
Aarsland et al 199920 23212Population based+++++First population based study
Fenelon et al200019 86109Consecutive clinical+++/−++++21 had auditory (not included here). Formed VH occurred in 48 (22% of whole sample)
  • +=Definite association; − =no association; ?= not reported or data not available.