Table 6

Additional educational needs according to drug exposure subtype. All children

Type of drug exposure Mainstream school Additional needs6-150 Odds ratio6-151
(95% CI)
No drugs156201.0
 Valproate39173.40 (1.63–7.10)
 Carbamazepine6120.26 (0.06–1.15)
 Others2920.54 (0.12–2.44)
 Including valproate2892.51 (1.04–6.07)
 Other combinations3161.51 (0.56–4.07)
  • Overall odds ratio of AEN in all children exposed to any AED compared with those unexposed was 1.49 (95% CI 0.83–2.67).

  • 6-150 Any form of additional educational need is included. This includes five children attending mainstream school without additional help who had received a statement of special educational needs.

  • 6-151 Odds ratio of additional educational needs of each subgroup exposed to AEDs compared with those unexposed.