Table 2

Causes of parasellar syndrome producing painful ophthalmoplegia

 (1) Trauma:
(2) Vascular:
  Intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm
  Posterior cerebral artery aneurysm
  Carotid-cavernous fistula
  Carotid-cavernous thrombosis
(3) Neoplasm:
  Primary intracranial tumour
   Pituitary adenoma
   Meningioma
   Craniopharyngioma
   Sarcoma
   Neurofibroma
   Gasserian ganglion neuroma
   Epidermoid
  Primary cranial tumour
   Chordoma
   Chondroma
   Giant cell tumour
  Local metastases
   Nasopharyngeal tumour
   Cylindroma
   Adamantinoma
   Squamous cell carcinoma
  Distant metastases
   Lymphoma
   Multiple myeloma
   Carcinomatous metastases
(4) Inflammation:
  Bacterial
   Sinusitis
   Mucocele
   Periostitis
  Viral
   Herpes zoster
  Fungal
   Mucormycosis
  Spirochetal
   Treponema pallidum
  Mycobacterial
   Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  Unknown cause:
   Sarcoidosis
   Wegener's granulomatosis
   Eosinophilic granuloma
   Tolosa-Hunt syndrome