Table 1

Neuropsychological test results for the mild cognitive impairment group

Reference NoNMean (SD)Normative* mean (SD)Maximum
DRS, Mattis dementia rating scale; CERAD, consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease; CVLT, California verbal learning test; MMSE, mini-mental state examination; NA, not applicable; WAIS-R, Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised; WCST, Wisconsin card sorting test, modified; WISC-R, Wechsler intelligence scale for children, revised; WMS-R, Wechsler memory scale, revised.
“Maximum” indicates the highest possible score on a test.
*Normative means and SDs listed are from large published cohorts (n=51–101) of comparably aged ADRC normal participants,42,43 except for the CERAD word list where normative elderly data are cited from Welsh et al.44
†Category fluency score is the total number of correct words provided in 60 seconds for each category. Letter fluency is the total number of f, a, s words provided over 60 seconds for each letter.
MMSE291427.0 (1.7)29.3 (1.0)30
DRS total3013131.8 (7.4)140.8 (2.9)144
DRS subscales 30
Attention1335.9 (0.6)36.4 (0.9)37
Construction135.6 (0.6)5.7 (0.7)6
Conceptualisation1337.5 (1.3)38.1 (1.1)39
Initiation/perseveration1332.2 (4.2)36.3 (1.6)37
Memory1320.7 (4.2)24.4 (1.0)25
Verbal memory
CVLT list A, trials 1–5 (raw)311432.4 (9.9)53.3 (8.3)80
CVLT long delay free recall31143.6 (2.8)11.6 (2.7)16
CVLT long delay cued recall31144.8 (2.8)12.2 (2.5)16
CVLT short delay free recall31143.4 (2.5)11.0 (2.8)16
CVLT short delay cued recall31145.6 (2.9)11.5 (3.1)16
CVLT discrimination (%)311474.8 (13.6)94.4 (5.3)100
CERAD immediate memory (trial 3)32106.7 (1.3)7.9 (1.6)10
CERAD delayed recall103.9 (2.7)6.8 (1.9)10
Non-verbal memory
WMS-R visual reproduction I331310.3 (3.8)12.0 (4.1)21
WMS-R visual reproduction II135.5 ( 4.4)8.9 (4.1)21
Vocabulary (WAIS-R), scaled341311.4 (3.1)12.2 (2.8)19
Boston naming test351326.0 (3.0)27.5 (2.3)30
Category fluency† (animals, fruits, vegetables)361234.8 (9.0)46.8 (8.8)NA
Letter fluency† (f, a, s words)371334.1 (11.8)40.8 (12.1)NA
Cube copy381211.2 (2.2)12.0 (1.2)13
WISC-R block design391336.0 (11.9)41.8 (10.4)62
Executive function
WCST, categories achieved40134.8 (1.6)5.3 (1.3)6
WCST, preservation errors40131.2 (2.5)2.0 (5.1)NA
Trails B (seconds)4113147.4 (56.0)103.1 (47.5)300
Digit span (WAIS-R, scaled score)34139.2 (2.0)10.0 (2.7)19
Trails A (seconds)411358.6 (22.8)48.5 (20.8)150