Table 1

Results of the components and the global score of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) questionnaire before and six months after surgery (n=11)

Before surgeryAfter surgeryp Value
Results are mean (SD).
Each component of the PSQI ranges from 0 (no impairment) to 3 (maximum impairment). The sum of the scores of the seven components yields the global PSQI score, which has a range of 0–21; higer scores indicate worse sleep quality.
Subjective sleep quality2.5 (0.6)0.4 (0.6)<0.001*
Sleep latency2.0 (1.3)0.4 (0.9)0.002*
Sleep duration2.6 (0.6)0.7 (0.6)<0.001*
Habitual sleep efficiency2.4 (0.8)0.5 (1.0)0.001*
Sleep disturbances1.7 (0.4)0.9 (0.5)0.005*
Use of drugs for sleep1.9 (1.5)1.9 (1.5)1
Daytime dysfunction1.5 (1.0)0.6 (0.6)0.005*
PSQI global score14.8 (4.5)5.4 (4.6)<0.001*