Table 3

Cardiac risk factors for embolism detected using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and TEE in 441 unselected patients with stroke or TIA

Detected by TTEDetected by TEE
Cardiac risk factors for embolismNo (%)No (%)
*Similar number was detected by TEE as by TTE.
Major risk factors
    Left atrial cavity thrombus2 (0.5)*
    Left atrial appendage thrombus021 (4.8)
    Left ventricular thrombus2 (0.5)*
    Aortic thrombus016 (3.6)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction <35%7 (1.6)*
    Mitral valve stenosis1 (0.2)*
Minor risk factors
    Mitral valve prolapse21 (4.8)*
    Mitral annular calcification8 (1.8)*
    Calcified aortic stenosis6 (1.4)*
    Patent foramen ovale067 (15.2)
    Slow flow (spontaneous echo contrast)020 (4.5)
    Atrial septal aneurysm20 (4.5)*
    Left ventricular aneurysm10 (2.3)*
    Aortic aneurysm01 (0.2)
    False tendon7 (1.6)*
    Aortic plaques073 (16.6)