Table 1

Consequences of traumatic brain injury: basic measures of injury severity and outcome

GCS and GOS from Jennett and Teasdale6; PTA categories unvalidated, adapted from Jennett and Teasdale6 and other sources,
Glasgow coma scale (GCS) Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA)
<5 mins: minimal
Eye opening (E) 5–60 mins: mild
4 spontaneous1–24 hours: moderate
3 to speech1–7 days: severe
2 to pain1–4 weeks: very severe
1 nil4–12 weeks: extremely severe
12–24 weeks: exceptionally severe
Motor response (M) >24 weeks: devastating
6 obeys
5 localises1 Dead
4 withdraws2 Vegetative
3 abnormal flexion3 Severely disabled (requires assistance or supervision for some activities during every 24 hours)
2 extends4 Moderately disabled (independent indoors and outdoors but disabled)
1 nil5 Good recovery (resumes normal life; may have minor impairments)
Verbal response (V)
5 orientated
4 confused conversation
3 inappropriate words
2 incomprehensible sounds
1 nil
Score (E+M+V) = 3–15