Table 10

Examples of non-neurogenic causes of orthostatic hypotension. In patients with autonomic failure these may enhance orthostatic hypotension considerably

Mathias CJ, Bannister R, eds. Investigation of autonomic disorders. In: Autonomic failure: a textbook of clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous system, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002:342–56.
▸Low intravascular volume
    Blood/plasma lossHaemorrhage, burns, haemodialysis
    Fluid/electrolyteInadequate intake—anorexia nervosa
Fluid loss—vomiting, diarrhoea, losses from ileostomy
Renal/endocrine—salt losing neuropathy, adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease), diabetes insipidus, diuretics
▸VasodilatationDrugs (glyceryl trinitrate)
Heat, pyrexia
Systemic mastocytosis
Extensive varicose veins
Systemic mastocytosis
▸Cardiac impairment
    Impaired ventricular fillingAtrial myxoma, constrictive pericarditis
    Impaired outputAortic stenosis