Table 2

Outline classification of autonomic diseases

Adapted from Mathias CJ. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Marsden CD. Neurology in clinical practice, 3rd ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000:2131–65
Primary
  • Acute/subacute dysautonomias

    • –pure pandysautonomia

    • –pandysautonomia with neurological features

    • –pure cholinergic dysautonomia

  • Chronic autonomic failure syndromes

    • –pure autonomic failure

    • –multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager syndrome)

    • –autonomic failure with Parkinson’s disease

Secondary
  • Congenital

    • –nerve growth factor deficiency

  • Hereditary

    • –autosomal dominant trait

    • –familial amyloid neuropathy

    • –autosomal recessive trait

    • –familial dysautonomia: Riley-Day syndrome

    • –dopamine β hydroxylase deficiency

  • Metabolic diseases

    • –diabetes mellitus

    • –chronic renal failure

    • –chronic liver disease

    • –alcohol induced

  • Inflammatory

    • –Guillain-Barré syndrome

    • –transverse myelitis

  • Infections

    • –bacterial: tetanus

    • –parasitic: Chagas’ disease

    • –viral: HIV

  • Neoplasia

    • –brain tumours, especially of third ventricle or posterior fossa

    • –paraneoplastic, to include adenocarcinomas of lung and pancreas

  • Surgery

    • –vagotomy and drainage procedures: “dumping syndrome”

  • Trauma

    • –cervical and high thoracic spinal cord transection

Drugs, chemical toxins (see table 3 also)
  • –by their direct effects

  • –by causing a neuropathy

Neurally mediated syncope
  • –vasovagal syncope

  • –carotid sinus hypersensitivity

  • –situational syncope

Postural tachycardia syndrome