Table 5

Some clinical manifestations in patients with primary autonomic failure: oropharyngeal dysphagia, urinary incontinence and respiratory features are less likely to occur in pure autonomic failure, and along with additional neurological deficits often are present in multiple system atrophy

Adapted from Mathias CJ. Autonomic disorders and their recognition. N Engl J Med 1997;:–4.
▸Cardiovascular systemOrthostatic (postural) hypotension
▸Sudomotor systemAnhidrosis, heat intolerance
▸Alimentary tractXerostomia, oropharyngeal dysphagia, constipation, occasionally diarrhoea
▸Urinary systemNocturia, frequency, urgency, incontinence, retention
▸Reproductive systemErectile and ejaculatory failure (in the male)
▸Respiratory systemStridor, involuntary inspiratory gasps, apnoeic periods
▸OcularAlacrima, aniscoria, Horner’s syndrome
▸Other neurological deficitsParkinsonian, cerebellar and pyramidal signs