Table 4

 Independent Student’s t test for comparisons between groups for VIQ

Drug 1Drug 2Mean difference in VIQ (95% CI)p
VPS monotherapy is associated with a significantly lower VIQ compared to carbamazepine, phenytoin, and unexposed.
Valproate monotherapyCarbamazepine monotherapy−10.5 (−17.3 to −3.6)0.003
Valproate monotherapyPhenytoin monotherapy−14.9 (−24.1 to −5.6)0.002
Valproate monotherapyUnexposed−7.3 (−13.6 to −0.9)0.025
Polytherapy with VPSUnexposed−3.8 (−10.7 to 3.2)0.281
All valproate exposedUnexposed−5.9 (−11.2 to −0.6)0.030