Table 1

Summary of results

TestNon-organic patternOrganic patternNon-diagnostic
Hoover’s test 1 is judged as non-organic when the paretic limb exerts a full downward opposition that is stronger than the manually tested strength of the hip extensor, and as organic when it exerts weak opposition comparable to the manually tested strength. Hoover’s test 2 is judged as non-organic when the sound limb exerts only weak downward opposition, and as organic when it exerts full downward opposition. The abductor sign is judged non-organic or organic according to the definition in the text.
Each test is judged non-diagnostic when the strength of the relevant muscles is full: hip extensors for Hoover’s test 1, hip flexors for Hoover’s test 2, and hip abductors for the abductor sign.
Hoover’s sign (combined) is judged non-organic when at least one of the two tests suggests non-organic paresis.
Figures in parenthesis for non-organic pattern in non-organic paresis indicate sensitivity to detect the non-organic nature, those for organic pattern in organic paresis indicate specificity. Non-diagnostic cases were excluded from both calculations.
Non-organic paresis (n = 16)
Hoover’s test 112 (100%)04
Hoover’s test 213 (87%)21
Hoover’s sign (combined)14 (93%)11
Abductor sign16 (100%)00
Organic paresis (n = 17)
Hoover’s test 105 (100%)12
Hoover’s test 2016 (100%)1
Hoover’s sign (combined)016 (100%)1
Abductor sign017 (100%)0