Table 2

Impairments and activity restrictions of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and orthopaedic controls (OC)

Group
PDOC
MeanSDnMeanSDntdfEffect size (d)p
AVLT, Auditory Verbal Learning Test; Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale; SD, standard deviation; df, degrees of freedom; t, independent t test.
Achievement Measure System (T-scores)
    Vocabulary45.79.92949.310.818−1.1845−0.350.24
    Abstract reasoning49.79.92952.89.118−1.1145−0.320.28
    Verbal competence51.68.82857.710.018−2.1744−0.660.04
    Word fluency61.510.73056.910.2291.67570.440.10
    Spatial thinking48.39.92955.77.418−2.7145−0.820.01
    Visual interference49.37.83058.06.324−4.4352−1.210.001
    Word recognition43.311.22953.110.118−3.0345−0.910.01
Modified Card Sorting Test
    Perseverative errors (%)25.115.53115.418.4282.18570.570.03
AVLT (total score)43.28.93048.58.127−2.3455−0.620.02
Depression scale19.77.63012.98.5253.14530.890.01
Webster Rating Scale9.14.332
Hoehn and Yahr staging2.60.828