Table 1

Structure of the DAPP-BQ with typical items for lower order traits

Higher order dimensionLower order traitTypical item
Users are asked to judge each statement as “very unlike me,” “moderately unlike me,” “somewhat like and unlike me,” “moderately like me,” or “very like me” for 16 items in each trait.
Emotional dysregulationAnxiousnessI am always worrying about something
Identity problemsI am unsure of what kind of person I really am
Social avoidanceI avoid people whenever possible
Affective labilityI often feel as if I am on an emotional roller-coaster
Cognitive distortionI have felt that things around me have seemed unreal
OppositionalityI often don’t do things that I am supposed to do
SubmissivenessIf I am pressured, I will usually give in
Insecure attachmentI feel panicky when I am separated from those I love
Self harmEnding my life sometimes seems the only way out
SuspiciousnessI think that other people are always trying to cheat me
NarcissismI really need to know that people approve of me
Dissocial behaviourStimulus seekingWhen I take risks, I never worry about getting hurt
Conduct problemsWhen rules are inconvenient, I break them
RejectionI like to challenge people
CallousnessI do not feel guilty when I hurt someone’s feelings
InhibitednessIntimacy problemsI rarely, if ever, become sexually excited
Restricted expressionI don’t often show my feelings
CompulsivityI try to keep everything in its proper place