Table 1

 Clinical characteristics of the Rochester diabetic neuropathy study cohort at the last evaluation

Sudden cardiac deathsOther deathsAlive
n%MeanSDn%MeanSDn%MeanSD
*Mean over time.
†Diabetic neuropathy staging: 0, no polyneuropathy; 1a, abnormal tests only; 1b, test abnormalities and neurological signs of polyneuropathy; 2a, condition 1b plus symptoms of polyneuropathy; 2b, condition 2a but ankle dorsiflexion weakness >50%.
‡Diabetic retinopathy staging: 0, no retinopathy; 1, mild background retinopathy; 2, severe non-proliferative retinopathy; 3, proliferative retinopathy.
§Diabetic nephropathy staging: 0, microalbuminuria <30 mg/24 h; 1, microalbuminuria 30–300 mg/24 h; 2, microalbuminuria >300 mg/24 h; 3, stage 1 or 2 and creatinine 141 to 354 μmol/l (1.6 to 4.0 mg/dl); 4, stage 1 or 2 and creatinine >354 μmol/l (4.0 mg/dl).
BP, blood pressure; CASS, composite autonomic severity score; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; Hb, haemoglobin; HDLC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; JTc, corrected JT interval; QTc, corrected QT interval.
Age (years)2172.411.911270.911.532957.317.1
Sex (male)1571.46053.615246.2
Diabetes type 129.52320.512638.3
Duration of diabetes (years)2118.28.411220.712.332917.19.4
FPG, mmol/l (mg/dl)*209.71 (175.0)1.88 (33.8)1029.80 (176.6)2.91 (52.5)3189.73 (175.3)2.34 (42.2)
Glycosylated Hb (%)*209.81.610010.42.731810.02.0
Calculated HbA1c (%)*208.01.01008.41.73188.21.2
HDLC, mmol/l (mg/dl)*200.83 (32.2)0.24 (9.2)880.95 (36.8)0.25 (9.6)3031.13 (43.5)0.36 (14.0)
Cholesterol, mmol/l (mg/dl)*204.70 (181.3)0.93 (35.9)885.15 (198.8)0.99 (38.3)3044.93 (190.5)0.93 (35.8)
Triglycerides, mmol/l (mg/dl)*202.05 (181.2)1.22 (108.2)882.06 (182.7)1.17 (103.8)3041.95 (172.4)1.46 (129.2)
Creatinine, μmol/l (mg/dl)*19123.8 (1.4)61.9 (0.7)98114.9 (1.3)70.7 (0.8)31788.4 (1.0)17.7 (0.2)
Microalbuminuria (mg/24 h)*12712.71313.750328.6666.6276133.8408.3
Total proteinuria (mg/24 h)*16739.71261.478540.11004.2285220.7510.5
Systolic BP (mm Hg)*20141.417.3104146.219.0321130.315.2
CASS total (points)125.42.5644.52.32592.92.3
CASS cardiovagal (points)131.91.2641.81.02601.21.0
JTc (ms)*18330.418.4102330.827.1298326.022.8
QTc (ms)*15443.217.189446.234.1294428.122.2
Neuropathy stage†
    0753.93243.213849.1
    1a17.779.54114.6
    1b430.81925.74817.1
    2a17.71317.65118.1
    2b00.034.131.1
Retinopathy stage‡
    0526.32324.78829.2
    1947.42830.19631.9
    2315.83436.67023.3
    3210.588.64715.6
Nephropathy stage§
    0531.32126.918865.5
    1531.33342.36522.7
    216.31012.8196.6
    3425.01418.0144.9
    416.300.010.4