Table 1

 Evaluation of tic severity, cognitive performance, and psychiatric status before and after neurosurgery

Before surgeryAfter surgery: stimulation category
NoneThalamicPallidal“Sham”Thalamic and pallidal
Maximum scores are indicated in parentheses. A reduction in the score indicates improvement, except for the attention index and episodic and working memory scores, where an increase indicates improvement.
BAS, brief anxiety scale; BIS, Baratt’s impulsivity scale; MADRS, Montgomery–Asberg depression rating scale; RVBTS, Rush video based tic rating scale; YGTSS, Yale global tic severity scale.
Month: 0 3 5 7 9 11
Tic severity
YGTSS (/100)14847830299134
RVBTS (/20)15131436113
Psychiatric evaluation
Depression (MADRS/60)16251910232017
Anxiety (BAS/60)17715810715
Impulsivity (BIS/100)18776635586139
Cognitive evaluation
Attention index (/130)197698989899101
Episodic memory (verbal learning/36)201430293131
Working memory (digit ordering test/105)21678685868689
Flexibility (trail making B–A)22964328273630