Table 2

 Individual aetiologies of status epilepticus

AetiologyNRSE(n = 47)RSE(n = 36)p value
AEDs, antiepileptic drugs; CNS, central nervous system; NRSE, non-refractory status epilepticus; RSE, refractory status epilepticus.
Inflammatory CNS diseases
    Encephalitis2 (4.3%)8 (22.2%)0.018
    Meningitis1 (2.1%)01.0
    Multiple sclerosis1 (2.1%)3 (8.3%)0.31
    Cerebral toxoplasmosis1 (2.1%)01.0
Cerebrovascular CNS diseases
    Acute stroke03 (8.3%)0.78
    Remote stroke7 (14.9%)4 (11.1%)0.75
    Intracerebral haemorrhage2 (4.3%)2 (5.5%)1.0
    Sinus venous thrombosis02 (5.5%)0.19
Secondary brain damage
    Infantile brain damage1 (2.1%)1 (2.8%)1.0
    Hypoxic brain damage03 (8.3%)0.78
Trauma
    Post-traumatic brain damage2 (4.3%)00.5
Neoplasia
    Primary brain tumour2 (4.3%)1 (2.8%)1.0
    Cerebral metastasis3 (6.4%)2 (5.5%)1.0
Cortical developmental malformation
    Cortical dysplasia01 (2.8%)0.43
Encephalopathy
    Encephalopathy in hyperammonaemia01 (2.8%)0.43
    Hypertensive encephalopathy1 (2.1%)1 (2.8%)1.0
Substance associated
    Low levels of AEDs13 (27.7%)0<0.001
    Alcohol-associated3 (6.4%)3 (8.3%)1.0
    Drug associated1 (2.1%)1 (2.8%)1.0
Unknown7 (14.9%)0 (0%)0.017