Table 1

 Overall major congenital malformation rates by type of antiepileptic drug exposure

Drug exposureInformative outcome* (n)MCMs (n)Crude MCM rate (95% CI)OR (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted OR† (95% CI)p Value†
*Pregnancy losses with no MCM excluded.
†Adjusted for age at delivery, parity of mother, family history of MCM, periconceptional folic acid exposure, and sex of infant.
AED, antiepileptic drug; CI, confidence interval; MCM, major congenital malformation; OR, odds ratio.
No AED22783.5 (1.8 to 6.8)1.01.0
Monotherapy2468913.7% (3.0 to 4.5)1.05 (0.50 to 2.19)0.901.03 (0.49 to 2.17)0.94
Polytherapy718436.0% (4.5 to 8.0)1.71 (0.79 to 3.69)0.171.76 (0.80 to 3.86)0.16