Table 3

‚ÄÉTypes of major congenital malformation by antiepileptic drug

DrugCases (n)NTDFacial cleftCardiacHypospadias/GUTGITSkeletalOther
GIT, gastrointestinal tract defects; GUT, genitourinary tract defects; NTD, neural tube defects.
Carbamazepine9002 (0.2%)4 (0.4%)6 (0.7%)2 (0.2%)2 (0.2%)3 (0.3%)1 (0.1%)
Valproate7157 (1.0%)11 (1.5%)5 (0.7%)9 (1.3%)2 (0.3%)8 (1.1%)2 (0.3%)
Lamotrigine6471 (0.2%)1 (0.2%)4 (0.6%)6 (0.9%)3 (0.5%)2 (0.3%)4 (0.6%)
Phenytoin820 (0.0%)1 (1.2%)1 (1.2%)0 (0.0%)1 (1.2%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)