Table 1 Summary of studies reporting postoperative sexual changes and/or symptoms of Klüver Bucy syndrome after amygdalotomy
Reference (author, year)Sample size (n)Postoperative sexual change (operation type)Description of sexual changePostoperative KBS symptoms
Sawa (1954)9011 5 schizophrenia, 5 epilepsy, 1 “hyperactive idiocy”n = 2 (bilateral)“Acceleration of sexual impulses” in the form of increased sexual innuendo in conversationErroneous recognition of people and objects. Abnormal oral behaviour, changes in emotional behaviour including rage reactions and placidity
Narabayashi (1963)9160 46 epilepsy, 6 EEG abnormalities and 8 severe behavioural disturbances. 39 unilateral, 21 bilateral operationsn = 1 (not reported)“Slight hypersexuality” lasting only a few daysNil
Mark (1972)9210 All had intractable TLE with uncontrollable fear or violence; 3 unilateral, 6 bilateral operations, including 1 unilateral ATLn = 1 (bilateral)Impotent for 2 y after surgeryHyperphagia lasting 3 months
Kim (1972)9363 Patients with either epilepsy or psychiatric disorders such as phobia and aggressivenessNot reported“Elevation of sexual libido was generally observed”Elated mood and increased appetite were generally observed
Heimburger (1978)9458 14 intractable seizures, 12 behavioural problems, 32 both; 43 unilateral, 15 bilateral operationsn = 3 (not reported)Increased sex drive which lasted from a few days to a few weeks and subsidedNil
Jacobson (1986)951 Chronic self-mutilationn = 1 (bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy)“A complete absence of sexual contact on the ward or in her personal life contrasted with her description of ‘sexual arousal’ in my presence”Disorder of facial recognition, emotional changes including placidity, hyperalertness to visual stimuli, motor stereotypies and oral behaviour
  • ATL, anterior temporal lobectomy; TLE, temporal lobe epilepsy.