Table 1 Comparison between patients with recurrent lacunar stroke and patients with first ever lacunar infarction
Lacunar infarctionp Value
First everRecurrent
Total No of patients573122
Sex
    Male322 (76.1)78 (19.5)0.116
    Female251 (81.0)44 (14.9)
Age (y) (mean (SD))73.8 (10.5)75.1 (9.1)0.206
Age ⩾85 y84 (14.7)19 (15.6)0.796
Vascular risk factors
    Hypertension399 (69.6)99 (81.1)0.010
    Diabetes163 (28.4)45 (36.9)0.065
    Valvular heart disease17 (3.0)4 (3.3)1.000
    Ischaemic heart disease77 (13.4)19 (15.6)0.535
    Atrial fibrillation61 (10.6)13 (10.7)0.997
    Congestive heart failure17 (3.0)5 (4.1)0.716
    TIA56 (9.8)16 (13.1)0.271
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease45 (7.9)14 (11.5)0.192
    Peripheral vascular disease44 (7.7)11 (9.0)0.619
    Alcohol abuse (>80 g/day)18 (3.1)2 (1.6)0.547
    Smoking (>20 cigarettes/day)66 (12.5)17 (13.9)0.455
    Hyperlipidaemia138 (24.1)18 (14.8)0.025
Clinical findings
    Sudden onset237 (41.4)46 (45.9)0.356
    Headache54 (9.4)12 (9.8)0.888
    Nausea/vomiting23 (4.0)2 (1.6)0.312
    Limb weakness432 (75.4)88 (72.1)0.451
    Sensory symptoms188 (32.8)33 (27.0)0.215
    Speech disturbances243 (42.4)51 (41.8)0.902
    Ataxia38 (6.6)10 (8.2)0.536
    Cranial nerve palsy19 (3.3)1 (0.8)0.230
Topography
    Internal capsule189 (33.0)36 (29.5)0.456
    Thalamus84 (14.7)14 (11.5)0.359
    Basal ganglia35 (6.1)14 (11.5)0.035
    Mesencephalus3 (0.5)1 (0.8)1.000
    Pons65 (11.3)14 (11.5)0.967
    Corona radiata33 (5.8)5 (4.1)0.464
Outcome
    Symptom free at discharge130 (22.7)31 (25.4)0.518
    Respiratory complications15 (2.6)2 (1.6)0.755
    Urinary infections15 (2.6)3 (2.5)1.000
    Cardiac complications6 (1.0)1 (0.8)1.000
    Vascular complications4 (0.7)00.790
    Infectious complications25 (4.4)2 (1.6)0.248
    Duration of stay (days) (mean (SD))11.8 (7.6)11.7 (7.9)0.913
    Inhospital mortality2 (0.3)2 (1.6)0.293
  • TIA, transient ischaemic attack.

  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.