Table 3

 Intervention effects and change at follow-up (test 4 − test 3)

Intervention β estimate (SE)Change in units* (% range)†p ValueFollow-up β estimate (SE) test 4-test 3p Value
CSI, Carer Strain Index; FES, Falls Efficacy Scale; FOGQ, Freezing Of Gait Questionnaire; NEADL, Nottingham Extended ADL Index; PDQ-39, Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire; PG score, posture and gait score; TGUG, Timed Get Up and Go test.
↑Estimate represents change in direction of improvement.
↓Estimate represents change in direction of deterioration.
*Change expressed as measured units, positive figures represent an improvement
†Change expressed as % of the scoring range; positive figures represent an improvement.
‡After transformation.
Primary outcomes
PG score (0–20)↑−0.85 (0.3)4.2%0.005↓0.582 (0.14)<0.001
Secondary outcomes
Gait and Balance
    Speed (m/s)↑0.05 (0.02)5 cm/s*0.005↓−0.02 (0.007)0.03
    Step length (m)↑0.04 (0.009)4 cm*0.001↓−0.02 (0.004)<0.001
    Step frequency (steps/min)↑−2.1 (1.19)−2.1 steps/min*0.08↓1.24 (0.56)0.03
    Functional reach (cm)↑1.3 (0.97)1.3 cm*0.18↓−1.08 (0.46)0.02
    Tandem stance (s)
    Single leg stance (s)
    TGUG (s)↑−0.002 (0.73)2 ms0.6↓0.14 (0.2)0.47
    FOGQ (0–24)↑−0.86 (0.44)3.6%†0.25‡↓0.8 (0.21)0.001
    NEADL (0–66)↑1.71 (0.94)2.6%†0.07↓−0.65 (0.5)0.2
    FES (0–130)↑4.77 (2.29)3.7%†0.04↓−2.92 (1.22)0.02
    PDQ-39 (total%)↑−1.36 (1.14)1.4%0.23↓0.99 (0.52)0.06
    CSI (0–13)↑−0.76 (0.32)5.8%†0.14‡↓0.15 (0.18)0.42