Table 1 Summary of studies that have reported a standardised mortality ratio, comparing Parkinson’s disease patients with a general population
Reference/dateNo of participantsLocationStudy recruitment datesOverall SMR
Hoehn17 1967241*USA1949–642.9
Nobrega18 1969203USA1935–661.6
Sweet19 1975100†USA19681.9
Barbeau20 197680†Canada19682.4
Diamond1 19761087USA1968–691.0
Zumstein21 19761155†NA1969–711.0
Marttila22 1977349†Finland1969–751.9
Joseph23 19781625†USA19691.3
Diamond,24 1979327†USA19721.4
Rinne25 1980349†Finland19691.6
Curtis26 1984176†UK1969–722.6
Rajput27 1984138/276‡USA1967–791.6
Cedarbaum28 1987100†USA19681.9
Diamond29 1989359USA1968–702.1
Ebmeier30 1990243UK19842.3
Kuroda31 1992438Japan19782.5
Ben-Shlomo 7 1995220/421‡UK1970–722.6
Wermuth32 1995458Denmark1973–911.9
Bennett33 1996159USA1982–842.0
Morens34 19968006§USA19652.5
Tison12 199624/2768¶France19883.4
Louis35 1997154/1254‡ **USA19882.7
Schrag6 1998132††UK1981–982.1
Hely36 1999149Australia1984–871.6
Berger13 2000139/11694‡‡Europe1987–922.3
Donnan37 200097/902†UK1989–951.8
Morgante14 200059/118Italy19872.3
Guttman38 200115304/30608‡ §§Canada1993–942.5
Lees4 2001782†UK1985–901.8
Montastruc39 200158†France1982–891.2
Parashos40 200289/89‡USA1979–882.2
Elbaz41 2003196/185‡USA1976–951.6
Fall42 2003170/510‡Sweden19891.6¶¶
Herlofson15 2004245Norway19931.5***
Hughes43 200490/50‡UK1985–861.6
de Lau44 2005166/6803‡‡Netherlands1990–931.8
Marras5 2005800†USA and Canada (DATATOP)1987–881.0
D’Amelio16 200658/116‡Italy19871.8
Chen45 2006288/51300§ ‡‡USA1986–20001.6
  • NA, not available; PD, Parkinson’s disease.

  • *672 patients with primary parkinsonism with a mean age of 55.3 years, but only 241 were used for mortality calculations.

  • †Data from a drug clinical trial.

  • ‡Case control study number of cases/number of controls.

  • §Men only.

  • ¶Population based cohort (n = 2792) with 16 deaths in patients with PD and 605 non-PD.

  • **Non-demented patients with PD compared with controls.

  • ††132 of 139 young onset PD cases (onset aged 21–39 years) had mortality data.

  • ‡‡Cohort study number of cases/total cohort.

  • §§This study used parkinsonism from records of physician diagnoses or PD drugs as the outcome of interest.

  • ¶¶Cumulative mortality incidence ratio; Cox proportional hazards ratio was 2.4.

  • ***SMR was 1.5 in all 245 identified PD cases, but the SMR was 1.35 in definite PD, 1.42 in definite and probable PD, and 1.99 in possible PD.