Table 3 Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models for predicting acute postconcussion syndrome
PredictorAdjusted OR (95%CI)p ValueUnadjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Age0.98 (0.95–1.02)0.2770.99 (0.97–1.01)0.328
Sex, Females3.33 (1.20–9.21)0.020*3.41 (1.77–6.56)<0.001**
Full Scale IQ1.06 (1.01–1.11)0.014*1.00 (0.98–1.04)0.610
mTBI/Control0.73 (0.31–1.73)0.4750.97 (0.53–1.76)0.912
CLTR0.99 (0.98–1.02)0.9811.00 (0.99–1.02)0.854
SDMT-oral0.93 (0.88–0.98)0.008*0.97 (0.94–1.00)0.063
SEQRT11.00 (0.99–1.00)0.1261.00 (0.99–100)0.573
ASDS-DISS1.06 (0.86–1.31)0.5761.29 (1.13–1.46)<0.001**
ASDS-Total1.07 (1.01–1.12)0.013*1.12 (1.07–1.16)<0.001**
AXIS-1, present5.76 (2.19–15.0)<0.001**5.26 (2.74–10.12)<0.001**
SUBS, present0.79 (0.28–2.25)0.6611.11 (0.57–2.15)0.765
Pain1.11 (0.90–1.38)0.3221.38 (1.20–1.60)<0.001**
Pain*mTBI1.57 (1.06–2.30)0.022*
[Pain*Control0.64 (0.43–0.94)0.022*]
  • Sex was dummy coded with male as the reference category.

  • mTBI/Control, a grouping variable for mTBI and trauma control groups was dummy coded with control as the reference category.

  • Pain was measured on a verbal numerical rating scale; Pain*mTBI, interaction term, with control dummy coded as the reference category; Pain*Control, interaction term, with mTBI coded as the reference category.

  • ASDS-DISS, the dissociative cluster score from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale without the dissociative amnesia and numbing items; ASDS-Total, sum of the re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal cluster scores from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale; AXIS-I, at least one preinjury affective or anxiety disorder (AXIS-I was dummy coded as an absence of a preinjury anxiety or affective disorder as the reference category); CLTR, Continuous Longer Term Retrieval score from the Westmead Selective Reminding Test; mTBI, mild traumatic brain injury; SDMT-oral, Symbol Digit Modalities Test-oral version; SUBS, at least one preinjury substance use disorder (SUBS was dummy coded as an absence of a preinjury substance use disorder as the reference category); SEQRT1, Sequential Reaction Time 1 from the California Computerised Assessment Package.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.001.