Table 2 Change scores for treatment and control groups for activity and participation
ScaleTreatmentControlMean difference95% CI for mean differencep ValueEffect size
nMean (SD)nMean (SD)
FIM motor48−3.0 (4.23)461.78 (4.25)4.783.04 to 6.52<0.0011.13
    Transfers48−0.75 (1.28)480.50 (1.13)1.250.76 to 1.74<0.0011.04
    Locomotion48−0.63 (1.28)470.21 (1.16)0.250.34 to 1.340.0010.69
    Sphincter48−0.33 (.91)470.02 (1.28)0.36−0.10 to .810.120.32
    Self-care48−1.29 (2.05)470.92 (2.56)2.211.27 to 3.15<0.0010.95
FIM cognitive48−0.15 (1.46)480.42 (1.09)0.5630.04 to 1.080.0350.44
MSIS
    Psychological460.11 (7.7)46−1.09 (6.5)−1.20−4.16 to 1.770.430.44
Physical46−1.13 (16.9)462.30 (12.68)3.44−2.76 to 9.630.270.23
GHQ
    Anxiety470.26 (4.83)500.20 (4.04)−0.055−1.85 to 1.740.950.01
    Depression470.13 (4.42)500.34 (3.09)0.212−1.32 to 1.740.780.06
    Somatic461.15 (4.48)50−0.10 (5.28)−1.25−3.30 to .790.230.26
    Social471.02 (3.75)500.34 (3.73)−0.68−2.91 to .830.370.18
  • Change scores were calculated by subtracting time 2 from time 1, therefore improvement is indicated by negative changes scores on the FIM and positive change scores on the MSIS.

  • The standardised treatment effect calculated as D = (mi–mc)/SD pooled, where mi is the mean change score of the intervention group and mc is the mean change score of the control group.

  • FIM, Functional Independence Measure; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; MSIS Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.