Table 4

Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of migraine with each item of cranial autonomic symptoms with combined diagnostic features*

Sensitivity (%)Specificity (%)PPVNPV
Conjunctival injection (n = 163)78.883.10.890.69
Lacrimation (n = 283)80.385.60.920.67
Nasal congestion (n = 153)66.476.70.880.47
Rhinorrhoea (n = 156)76.679.00.850.69
Eyelid oedema (n = 88)
Forehead/facial sweating (n = 280)
  • *Presence of bilateral CAS with either mild to moderate intensity or occurrence in non-headache periods.

  • CAS, cranial autonomic symptoms; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value.