Table 1 Descriptions of included studies arranged by stroke outcome
StudyOriginSize (n)Retinal featureStroke outcomeAssociation found?Stroke (n)
Prevalent stroke
    Abu El-Asrar et al.32648RetinopathyPrevalent ischaemic strokeYes8
    Petitti and Bhatt332124RetinopathyPrevalent ischaemic strokeYes56
    Luijckx et al3459ArteriosclerosisPrevalent ischaemic strokeNo59
    Hayreh et al351090RVOPrevalent strokeYes43
    Mitchell et al25BMES3654RVOPrevalent strokeYes?
    Klein et al23ARIC8772AVRPrevalent strokeNo?
AVNPrevalent strokeNo
FANPrevalent strokeNo
    Wong et al17Ausdiab1027RetinopathyPrevalent strokeYes42
    Wong et al16CHS2050RetinopathyPrevalent strokeYes133
    Kwon et al.29550RetinopathyPrevalent MRI infarctYes61
    Inoue et al30361RetinopathyPrevalent MRI infarctYes101
    Kobayashi et al37933ArteriosclerosisPrevalent MRI infarctYes99
    Longstreth et al10CHS1717AVRPrevalent MRI infarctYes496
AVNPrevalent MRI infarctYes
FANPrevalent MRI infarctNo
RetinopathyPrevalent MRI infarctNo
    Cooper et al9ARIC1684AVRPrevalent MRI infarctYes183
FANPrevalent MRI infarctYes
HaemorrhagePrevalent MRI infarctYes
Soft exudatesPrevalent MRI infarctNo
MicroaneurysmsPrevalent MRI infarctYes
AVNPrevalent MRI infarctYes
    Ueda et al36185RVO/RAOPrevalent MRI infarctNot clear?
    Kwa et al38179ArteriosclerosisPrevalent MRI infarctNo?
Art tortuosityPrevalent MRI infarctNo
    Ikeda et al31318RetinopathyPrevalent computed tomography infarctsYes56
Incident stroke
    Cheung et al8ARIC1617RetinopathyIncident ischaemic strokeYes75
    Bruno et al40140Retinal emboliIncident ischaemic strokeYes19
    Wong et al14ARIC10358RetinopathyIncident ischaemic strokeYes113
AVNIncident ischaemic strokeYes
FANIncident ischaemic strokeNo
AVRIncident ischaemic strokeNo
    Ikram et al26ROTT6780Inc ven calibreIncident ischaemic strokeYes411
Dec art calibreIncident ischaemic strokeYes
    Wong et al18CHS1992Inc ven calibreIncident strokeYes113
Dec art calibreIncident strokeNo
    Howard and Russell4285RAOIncident strokeYes22
    Klein et al20WESDR996RetinopathyIncident strokeYes59
    Cohen et al43950RetinopathyIncident strokeYes41
    Kim et al39365RetinopathyIncident strokeNo?
    Fuller et al444753RetinopathyIncident strokeYes293
    Wong et al15ARIC1684RetinopathyIncident strokeYes32
    Mitchell et al11BMES3583RetinopathyIncident stroke/TIAYes132
FANIncident stroke/TIAYes
AVNIncident stroke/TIANo
AVRIncident stroke/TIANo
    Ikram et al27ROTT490Inc ven calibreIncident MRI infarctYes33
Dec art calibreIncident MRI infarctNo
    Klein et al22WESDR2366RetinopathyIncident death with strokeYes274
    Hirai et al19BDES4284RetinopathyIncident death with strokeNo?
    Klein et al21BDES4856Retinal embolusIncident death with strokeYes97
    Wang et al12BMES/BDES8580Retinal embolusIncident death with strokeYes344
    Witt et al13BDES684Dec art calibreIncident death with strokeNo28
    Klein et al24BDES4926TortuosityIncident death with strokeNo154
Bifurcation angleIncident death with strokeNo
Retinal emboliIncident death with strokeNo
    Cugati et al28BDES/BMES8580RVOIncident death with strokeNo341
    Tsaloumas et al4195RVOIncident death with strokeNo18
  • ?, not given in paper and unable to calculate from data; art, arteriolar; Association found?, presence of significant association between retinal feature and stroke outcome; AVN, arterio-venous nicking; AVR, arterio-venous ratios; dec, deceased; FAN, focal arteriolar narrowing; inc, increased; RAO, retinal artery occlusion; RVO, retinal vein occlusion; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; ven, venular.